Mock Mark Scheme

Useful to keep a track of what I am expecting from the students in their mock based on the new OCR B scheme (Short course)

 Religion Peace and Justice

  1.  
     
  2. What is capital punishment
    1. Putting to death a person who has been found guilty
  3. 2 Reasons for punishing criminals
    1. Deterrence, protection, retribution, reformation
  4. What is meant by liberation theology
    1. Modern development in the church, focused on equality for all, most clearly seen in Latin America (Oscar Romero), Asia and parts of Africa.
    2. People who follow the teachings of Jesus have an obligation to take positive action to oppose social injustice and governmental abuse of power
    3. Prot and Catholic theology
  5. Why Christians are often against the use of violence
    1. Pacifism, violence is always wrong as an act despite any possible positive consequences of violence
    2. Quakers & Conscientious objectors work for peace as follows Christian message more closely
    3. Violence is not the only method of fighting – peaceful protest
    4. ‘Greater love has no man than this, that he lay down his life for his friends’ Jn15:13
    5. ‘Blessed are the peacemakers for they will be called children of God’ Mt 5:9
    6. Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you Mt 5:43
    7. However direct action is allowed in the Bible – ‘Prepare for war! Rouse the Warriors! Let all the fighting me draw near and attack. Beat your plough shares into swords and your pruning hooks into spears’ Joel 3:9
    8. Jesus uses direct action – Cleansing of the Temple – Righteous Anger (Bonhoeffer!)
  6. Sometimes war is necessary
    1. Pacifism vs. Violence
    2. Violence vs. Direct Action/Righteous Anger
    3. Just War theory (Aquinas) means that war is carried out for the right reasons and is the last resort rather than the first resort.
    4. Holy war?
    5. Sometimes War is necessary but most Christians will argue that peaceful methods should be sought first.

       

  7. Religion and Science

     
     

  8. What does stewardship mean?
    1. Someone who looks after something for someone else
  9. 2 egs of environmental issues
    1. Range of answers dependent on students
  10. Scientific theories of how the world and humanity began
    1. The world: Big Bang theory – massive explosion circa 18 Billion years ago leading to creation of universe. Cooling of matter and gases released led to formation of planets.
    2. Humans: Evolution and natural selection/survival of the fittest.
    3. Third mark? Explanation of key terms such as evolution – development of life from original single celled organisms?
  11. Why some Christians might not accept scientific theories concerning how the world and humanity were made
    1. Focus on some Christians so suggesting that it is possible for Christians to follow scientific theories
    2. Contrast of literalist/Creationist interpretation of historical accuracy of Genesis vs. symbolic/liberal/mythical interpretation of spiritual truth expressed within a religious narrative.
    3. Day = period of time or 24 hour period?
    4. Creationist cannot accept as they see the bible as infallible – i.e. The written word of God. Symbolic interpretation can accept as Genesis expresses an understanding of the relationship between God, humanity and creation.
    5. Review of epistemology of science vs. religion – science answers the how and religion answers the why? Combination of the two can lead to greater understanding.
  12. It is acceptable to test on animals if it benefits human beings
    1. Yes – Dominion
    2. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the Earth. Gen 1:28 – Dominion/Rule/Authority
    3. God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him, male and female he created them. Gen 1:27 – authority through image of God
    4. Breathed into his nostrils the breath of life and the man became a living being Gen 2:7 – Humanity has soul which animals don’t
    5. No – Stewardship interpretation rather than authority interpretation
    6. The earth and everything in it is the Lord’s – Psalms – Not ours to mistreat
    7. Being most advanced creature means responsibility of care for planet
    8. In the middle – necessary evil which should be monitored in the light of Christian ethical principles (CofE)
    9. Gaya Hypothesis – Deep and Shallow Ecology (Links to Quakers understanding of interconnectedness of creation to God)
    10. Peter Singer – specisim to suggest that human beings are the most important?

       

  13. Good and Evil

     
     

  14. What is conscience?
    1. Inner voice (considered by some as God given) which provides direction on morality – Difficult to define!
  15. 2 references to Satan
    1. Adam and Eve (although not Biblically correct but never mind…), Job, Jesus and temptation, Jesus and reference to Lucifer falling from heaven, Revelation (?)
  16. Difference between Moral and Natural evil
    1. Moral – humans – murder, rape
    2. Natural – not humans – tsunami
  17. How do Christians decide on the right way to live
    1. WWJD (healing miracles, caring for the poor and needy)
    2. What did Jesus say (‘love thy neighbour’, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, blessed are the peace makers)
    3. Reading the Bible (10 Commandments)
    4. The Church Community – peers
    5. The Church leaders – The Pope
    6. Individual Conscience – if the voice of God!
    7. Famous Christians – MLK, Mother Theresa
  18. The devil is the cause of evil
    1. Yes he is – causes all of the suffering to Job
    2. Yes he is – but doesn’t cause the exact suffering but instead tempts humans to use their free will to go away from God. It is this action that then leads them to experience suffering – Adam & Eve
    3. No he doesn’t exist – metaphor for human weakness
    4. No it is all a test set out by God

       

  19. Religion and Equality

     
     

  20. What is forgiveness?
    1. Act of pardoning or forgiving someone for something which they have done wrong
  21. 2 egs of discrimination
    1. Racism, sexism, ageism, homophobia, against disability, against those with a laugh like a chipmunk
  22. What are Christian attitudes to other religions
    1. Other religions are wrong – ‘I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me’ (John 14:6)
    2. So members of Christianity have to be proselytising and evangelistic – conversionary duty
    3. There is more than one way to God – all religions are an expression of belief in the one God
    4. Some may argue that other religions are a basic (lower) form of Christianity but at least it is worship.
    5. Others will argue that religions are equal as they are all providing worship to different aspects of God.
  23. Explain Christian responses to racism
    1. Against racism because it is against the message given by Jesus in the bible
    2. Focus in Christianity on equality – Parable of Good Samaritan
    3. Love thy neighbour
    4. We are all made in the image of God – therefore all god’s children
    5. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. (Gal 3:28)
    6. However have been Christian responses to racism which have been in favour of it instead. Not necessarily perfect history in relation to racism – Crusades, Catholic church had negative impact with native South Americans, Dutch Reform Church approved apartheid in South Africa
  24. It is obvious people are not equal
    1. There are differences whether in form/shape/appearance or in status in society
    2. Claims such as UN Declaration of Human rights incorrect – all humans beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
    3. However differences are superficial – all human which therefore means equality
    4. Differences of equality should be fought against by the Church – liberation theology
    5. Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another Jn 13:34
    6. I now realise how true it is that God does not show favouritism but accepts men from every nation who fear him and do what is right Acts 10:34f
    7. Love your neighbour as yourself
    8. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. (Gal 3:28)
    9. Differences in status does not make it right.
    10. If aim of question is descriptive of the world then yes it is obvious people are not equal. If asking if this is correct then Christianity would argue that it is something to be fought against.

       
       

Year 8 Mark Scheme with Examples

This is an updated mark scheme with particular examples to a unit entitled ‘How and Why do people worship?’ This is working towards developing both a student friendly explanation as well as a detailed explanation for staff/parents.

 

How and why do people worship – Mark scheme

 
 

Description – Level 4

Work at this level will focus mainly on describing what is going on, focusing on detail. The work will look at the factual description of what happens in worship in a variety of religions. Students will describe the key outline of the topic and will show a basic understanding of key religious concepts. Ideas are expressed simply.

 
 

e.g. Baptism is an event which takes place for new born Christians


e.g. Muslims worship in a mosque. Men and women worship on separate sides of the mosque hall. In some mosques women have to pray behind men or in a separate prayer space.

 
 

Explanation – Level 5

Work at this level will be able to explain what is going on. To do this students will show an ability to link a religious meaning to the events being discussed. Students may use PEE (point, evidence, explain) to explain the meaning of beliefs, actions and ideas focusing mainly on the symbolic meanings. Students will also begin to use more key terminology to further develop their argument.

e.g. Baptism is a rite of passage for new born children which welcomes them into the Christian faith.

e.g. A mosque can be quite plain inside. There are no pictures or statues of God. The reason for this is because Muslims believe that pictures and statues are blasphemous. Muslims believe that it is offensive to try and show Allah, who is wholly spirit, in physical form. They also think that any human attempt to create an image of Allah would be a very bad and poor version of him and so they reject any attempt to do so.

 
 

 
 

Analysis – Level 6
Work at this level begins to analyse the beliefs and actions and express them in terms of deeper spiritual and moral concepts. This means that ideas are developed and understood in a larger context within the religion itself or within society. Students will explore the key ideas that link to the topic, considering multiple theological/religious concepts expressed through event/topic. Students will support claims they make using a range of evidence.

 
 

e.g. Child baptism is a rite of passage for babies joining the Christian faith. This is seen through the actual baptism itself when the sign of the Cross, the key symbol of the Christian faith, is made on the baby’s forehead. Whilst the baby is too young to understand, it provides the baby with a larger family by welcoming them into the church. Therefore the service changes the identity of the child by providing a sense of belonging to a larger community of baptised people. This in turn develops the Christian identity as it continues to welcome people into the faith. Therefore baptism can be seen as reflective of the missionary and evangelistic nature of the religion, a characteristic commended by Jesus himself to the disciples.


e.g. A key characteristic of a mosque is the minaret tower. From here Muslims will be called to prayer. This teaches the believer and the surrounding community about Islam itself. For Muslims it is important to stop and attend the mosque worship. It serves as a reminder that the concerns and activities they are carrying out on Earth are nothing in comparison with the importance of worshipping Allah. The call to pray could also be considered as evangelistic as the striking sound of the call to prayer is heard by everyone. This reflects the Islamic understanding that all souls have access to Allah, as it was before Creation, however not all souls respond to that calling. However it is important in the Islamic faith that the calling is offered to all so all have the opportunity of worshiping Allah at least.

 
 

Linking ideas together – Level 7

Students will evaluate ideas in order to reach a conclusion using PEE to tie a number of ideas they have analysed in detail so as to reach a conclusion. Students will express their ideas as well, confidently using many key terms to express their answers eloquently. Students will go beyond merely expressing an opinion. They will use evidence and ideas in order to create a reasoned conclusion, theory or idea that is well argued, providing a persuasive developed argument. Some of the higher level answers may begin to recognise the strengths of different ideas, as well as considering bias arguments are exposed to.

 
 

e.g. Child baptism is a rite of passage for new born babies who are being welcomed into the Christian faith through the process described above. However, this is not an active choice on the part of the child. Instead it will have been developed as a rite of passage for the baby by the parents. We can see this further through the declarations the adults present have to make, that they will help and support the child who cannot answer for themselves. It is this lack of conscious choice on the part of the child that leads me to suggest that only adult baptisms are acceptable. In the adult baptism the person being baptised has more knowledge about the faith and community they are joining and the implications of the choice they are making. Children at times do not look at the long term effects of their actions – for example wanting to play around in lessons rather than consider the usefulness of schooling in later life. A baby is unaware of the social implications of their baptism – i.e. How they are viewed by others nor the implications for their own behaviour following the baptism.

 
 

However an adult is more conscious of these decisions and can therefore take the responsibility of faith on board as well as looking at the long term effects -access to heaven or, if they believe in Hell, the implication of an eternity in hell. Due to these reasons I would argue that an adult baptism would be more effective as it is a reasoned choice on the part of the believer, rather than an imposed parental decision given to the child to develop into a Christian.


e.g. Whilst Islamic worship may have many elements within it, it can be argued that this ritualistic approach which helps strengthens a believer’s faith and their understanding of their own faith. When Muslims enter the mosque they have to ensure that they have washed themselves. Whilst this ensures that they are clean before entering the mosque, I think it’s purpose is far deeper than that. This process forces them to concentrate on what they are doing and where they are. This pause between the secular world and the world of the mosque helps the believer become aware of the spiritual event they are about to engage in.

 
 

However it is possible to argue that ritual can replace the belief and that believers can become so wrapped up in their ritual that they forget the real reason why they are there. My own view is that intention has to be the key element of worship. Whilst one can be seen to do all the right things in the right order, this becomes pointless if the intention to worship is not present. However this is a view not necessarily shared by some religious communities. Ritual is a method of preserving tradition and becomes an identifier to separate the communities and to show a claim to religious truth. I can understand that communities do not want to lose this identification tool and therefore may prioritise ritual.

 
 

However as mentioned in the first paragraph, people can become easily distracted by the world around them. If a ritual is able to remind them of what they should be doing, then it serves a purpose of bringing people to worship and highlighting what the correct intention should be during that process of worship. Therefore this highlights the key principle of Islamic worship itself, the role of actively choosing to worship Allah. If worship is just ritual or is just sat in a quiet space, then it is not worship. Worship must include an active intention of dedicating time and space to Allah, something which ritual can aid.

Next steps…

Working with a few people to look at how to properly define RE – if that is possible… Starting from the point of view that RE might learn something by going through the same process history did during the 1960s, but is able to jump a few steps ahead by taking on board modern ideas as well as the key ideas of defining the subject in order to go forward.

A lot stands in ML’s definition of RE being split into 3 strands: theological, philosophical and ethical.

Are they the meta-conceptual approach through which to access 2nd order concepts and substantive concepts? Access to actual RE is through a process of acknowledged/self-reflective refinement which brings the content into specific focus.

Meta-Concept : 2nd Order Concept : Religion : Lens : Content.

By lens I am referring to Erricker’s (2010) idea that you can view RE content through a range of lenses, each with their own specific tint. I.e. you can look at Christian theology through a Marxist lens or through a Feminist lens, historical lens etc….

i.e.

Philosophy : Interpretation : Hindu : Social Sciences : Sin/Karma?

Theology : Change and Continuity : Christian : Historical : Salvation

Ethical : Self-Awareness : Islam : Feminist : Women

Why Centre on Literacy for levels

  • Is literacy a good tool?
  • Can literacy develop into a good tool for assessment?
  • If students can use language to express themselves and religious ideas surely they must have a good grasp of the subject in order to be able to do so?
    • Yes on the one hand – i.e. I can use the phrases without necessarily needing to explain them because I already understand their background/meaning
    • No on the other hand – i.e. I can use the word but I cannot explain it and I am not sure if I am using the right meaning but I am going to use it anyway
  • Which scholars can I use to back this up?
  • Is literacy a bad tool as it automatically prohibits those who have weak literacy
    • Use of TAs etc as scribes – verbal literacy is just as powerful as written literacy for assessment.

Assessment Levels & Literacy

Trying to rework assessment levels around concept of literacy. Have been considering QCA ones (what happens now? Where do our assessment levels come from?)

Level 3

Students may just state an idea without providing a full description of the event/object/symbol/concept. Key terms may rarely be used. Ideas will not be set within a bigger wider context of the religion.

e.g. Baptism happens when a baby is born.

e.g. The Cross is a symbol of Christianity

 

Level 4

Students describe ideas more than they explain them. They describe ideas without fully developing them in relation to the religion or the question. There is a basic understanding of key terms and ideas are expressed simply.

e.g. Baptism is an event which takes place for new born Christians

e.g. Jesus died on the Cross which is why it is a symbol for Christians

 

Level 5

Students are able to explain ideas rather than just describing them. They begin to use key phrases and terminology to show that their ideas are more developed.

e.g. Baptism is a rite of passage for new born children which welcomes them into the Christian faith.

e.g. The Cross is a symbol for Christians as it reminds them of the religious sacrifice of Jesus’ death

 

Level 6

Students begin to sound confident in their expression of ideas. Key terminology is found throughout the piece. Ideas are understood in a larger context of either the question or of religion, though not fully developed.

e.g. Child baptism is a rite of passage for babies joining the Christian faith. This provides the child with a sense of belonging to a larger community of baptised people, developing a Christian identity.

e.g. The Cross is a key reminder to Christians of the key beliefs of their faith – that Jesus died for their sins. However Christians do not focus just on the death of Jesus but also consider his resurrection.

 

Level 7

Students express their ideas well and confidently sing many key terms and express their answer eloquently, often using terminology. Students will consider a range of ideas as well as beginning to come to a reasoned agreement in relation to the question asked.

e.g. Child baptism is a rite of passage for new born babies who are being welcomed into the Christian faith. However, this is not an active choice on the part of the child. Instead it will have been developed as a rite of passage for the baby by the parents. So some may argue that only adult baptisms are acceptable because an adult has more knowledge and is able to make a more informed choice about lifestyle than a baby can.

e.g. The Cross becomes a key focus of Christian belief, although Catholics and Protestants will vary in their discussion of whether the resurrection or the death of Jesus were the key elements of the event of the Cross. Some may argue however that people need to think about all of Jesus’ teachings, like the Good Samaritan and forgiveness/love, as well rather than just focusing on the event of the Cross.

 

 


 

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